The timing of our discussion of jazz crossover in the 1960s couldn’t be better. This last weekend at the joint meeting of the American Musicological Society, Society for Music Theory, and the Society for Ethnomusicology (also known as musicon12), there were numerous presentations that specifically addressed the issues associated with this period. In particular, panels and papers on Soul and presentations from the roundtable, “Fifty Years of Bossa Nova in the United States,” specifically addressed the complexities of teasing apart pop, jazz and rock sensibilities during this period. From a soul music / soul jazz perspective, scholars such as David Brackett, of McGill University, delved into how the music industry used “soul” in descriptions and reviews of records in the early to mid-1960s. “Soul” was associated with “soul jazz” first in such examples as Soul Summit by Sonny Stitt and Gene Ammons in 1963.
Charles Kronengold, of Stanford University, discussed how the orchestral and rhythmic approach of bossa nova (especially its tresillo pattern) were translated into easy listening and other “not rock” genres of the mid-1960s, including Dione Warwick. Do you hear the traces of bossa nova and/or jazz in this recording?
All of this just shows how the knowledge about the topics we are covering this week are very much at the cutting edge of the disciplines of music scholarship.
Next week we will be discussing soul jazz, bossa nova, and jazz-pop crossovers of the 1960s. Here is a link to the MP3s. As you listen and look at the lead sheets, pay special attention to rhythm and the ways that these musicians reach out to a pop audience.
Here is the listening for next week. You will notice that there are two versions of Charles Mingus’s “Fables of Faubus”: one is the first one that was commercially released, the other is how Mingus and his band played the tune live.
Here is the article by George Lewis. Although I initially intended to give you the version available in The Other Side of Nowhere, this one is briefer, is easier to read on e-readers, and lacks the addendum that Lewis included when the essay was included in that edited collection. If you would like to read the version from The Other Side of Nowhere, please let me know.
For next week, there are many ideas to chew on. Those of you especially interested in elements of Afro-Futurism (i.e. Sun-Ra) should check out his film, Space is the Place (1974). Here it is in its entirety:
In class today, I raised the question as to why Miles Davis and John Coltrane enjoy an especially privileged position in the history of jazz and among jazz critics. Here are few possibilities that might feed into their status in jazz history.
- They were both visibly involved with more than one experimental, modern jazz style.
- They both had a relationship with the civil rights movement.
- They were photogenic and / or charismatic.
- They pushed their instruments into new creative territory on more than occasion.
- They somehow embodied the heroic ideal in music.
- They often took risks in their playing, including making mistakes or using techniques that exposed their playing in new ways.
Coltrane and Davis are far from the first jazz musicians to get this kind of treatment as creative figures in the jazz press, but they are the only ones that get such extensive treatment in our text (and in others). Why do you think this is? Were their heroic efforts worth celebrating beyond those of other similar artists? For example, Bill Evans gets very little space even though he inspired a new school of playing the piano that is still largely influential to this day.
Could it have to do with the privileged place Coltrane holds among jazz educators? We talked extensively in class today about the ways that John Coltrane’s “Giant Steps” holds a certain position in jazz pedagogy. Do you think that Miles Davis gets the same kind of attention? I mentioned in class that many trumpet players can play all of Davis’s solos from Kind of Blue. There is a fundamental difference between these two styles of playing, and yet they are both common in training and disciplining of young players. What can we learn from this?
Personally, I think much of the attention that these two figures receive has to do with a few factors, including the timing of their contributions just before the frenzy of the “New Thing” and Jazz-Rock fusion and the romanticism jazz audiences enjoy ascribing to risk takers. But I don’t think that is all that there is to it, and I would like to extend this discussion because I think there is much more to explore here.
Here is the additional listening for this week. Here are transcriptions of Miles Davis’s “So What,” John Coltrane’s “Giant Steps,” and Wayne Shorter’s “Witch Hunt.”
This week we are dealing with the immediate aftermath of Cool and Hard Bop (and the continuation of “Modern Jazz”), with a special emphasis on Miles Davis and John Coltrane and their legacy in the realm of post-bop. Since many of these recordings have been so influential, we are going to dedicate a considerable about of time to looking at transcriptions and discussing the consequences of these musical developments on jazz.
ETA: I should add that the repertoire we are doing this week has, for better or worse, been very influential for contemporary students of jazz. To this day, a player’s ability to play over the “Giant Steps” changes is understood as a benchmark of ability (and is often taught in jazz programs around the country). Further, doing so without sounding like Coltrane is a further challenge. Jazz scholar David Ake has written about this particular phenomenon in Jazz Cultures.
In commemoration of Thelonius Monk’s birthday, I give you a video of his live performance with his eccentricities on full display:
Watch what he does about 3 minutes in. Monk was an important figure in post-war jazz composition and performance and is one of the most widely performed jazz composers out there.
Speaking of jazz birthdays, yesterday was Yusef Lateef’s birthday. Here’s “Morning”
Here is the additional listening for the last week of Mod 1. As we continue to explore what our text dubs “Modern Jazz,” the recordings will be getting longer as musicians explore the new freedom of long playing (LP) records. Many of these tracks exceed five minutes each and some get considerably longer: Art Blakey’s “Moanin'” is over 9 minutes long and Sonny Rollins’ “Blue Seven” is just over 11 minutes. Something to consider as we listen more closely to cool jazz and hard bop: what effect do these longer recordings have on the overall aesthetic of jazz? Further, how does increased recording length change the act of listening to jazz?